Research and Reviews
Various studies and research has been conducted to show the relationship between Vision, Learning and various developmental conditions. We direct interventions such as Vison Therapy and customized prescription glasses to individuals who are experiencing visual symptoms and has a Binocular Vision Dysfunction such as Convergence Insufficiency (Weak Eye Teaming) and Accommodation Dysfunction (Weak Eye Focusing).
How does Eye Tracking, Eye Teaming, Eye Focusing affect learning?
By Nadia Northway, PhD BA DBO SRO –
by Gunvor Birkeland Wilhelmsen and Marion Felder –
by College of Vision Development (US) –
Quaid, P., & Simpson, T. (2013). Association between reading speed, cycloplegic refractive error, and oculomotor function in reading disabled children versus controls. Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie, 251(1), 169–187. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00417-012-2135-0 –
Granet, D. B., Gomi, C. F., Ventura, R., & Miller-Scholte, A. (2005). The relationship between convergence insufficiency and ADHD. Strabismus, 13(4), 163–168. –
Vision and Dyslexia
Raghuram, A., Gowrisankaran, S., Swanson, E., Zurakowski, D., Hunter, D. G., & Waber, D. P. (2018). Frequency of Visual Deficits in Children With Developmental Dyslexia. JAMA ophthalmology, 136(10), 1089–1095. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2018.2797 –
Feizabadi, M., Jafarzadehpur, E., & Akrami, M. (2018). Accommodation, Convergence, and Stereopsis in Dyslexic Schoolchildren. Middle East African journal of ophthalmology, 25(1), 14–18. https://doi.org/10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_71_17 –
by Gro Horgen Vikesdal, Mark Mon-Williams, Trine Langaas –
The link between Vision and ADHD
Bellato, A., Perna, J., Ganapathy, P.S. et al. Association between ADHD and vision problems. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Mol Psychiatry (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-022-01699-0 –
ADHD is associated with some self-reported and objectively ascertained functional vision problems, but not with structural alterations of the eye.
DeCarlo, Dawn K.; Swanson, Mark; McGwin, Gerald; Visscher, Kristina; Owsley, Cynthia. ADHD and Vision Problems in the National Survey of Children’s Health. Optometry and Vision Science: May 2016 - Volume 93 - Issue 5 - p 459-465 doi: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000000823 –
Borsting, E., Rouse, M., & Chu, R. (2005). Measuring ADHD behaviors in children with symptomatic accommodative dysfunction or convergence insufficiency: a preliminary study. Optometry (St. Louis, Mo.), 76(10), 588–592. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optm.2005.07.007 –
Vision Therapy improves motor skills in Eye Tracking, Eye Teaming, Eye Focusing
Scheiman M, Kulp MT, Cotter SA, Lawrenson JG, Wang L, Li T. Interventions for convergence insufficiency: a network meta‐analysis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2020, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD006768. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006768.pub3. Accessed 17 October 2022. –
Chan, A.S., Lee, TL., Sze, S.L. et al. Eye-tracking training improves the learning and memory of children with learning difficulty. Sci Rep 12, 13974 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-18286-6 –
Borsting, E., Mitchell, G. L., Arnold, L. E., Scheiman, M., Chase, C., Kulp, M., & Cotter, S. (2016). Behavioral and Emotional Problems Associated With Convergence Insufficiency in Children: An Open Trial. Journal of Attention Disorders, 20(10), 836–844. –